European Brushware Federation

Brushpedia

A

Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS)

Usage
tooth-mug and interdental-brushhandle

Origin
ABS is a molding compound out of three substances (out of acrylonitrile, butadiene, styrene), wich under lots of modifications is the most importance. The proportions of the three substances can vary.

Characteristics
ABS is a stiff and impact-resistant compound. It has a high scratch resistance and abrasiveness.

Application area
Interdentalsection

Amalgam

The most frequently used material for fillings. This tried and tested, and economical, material is criticised by many professionals for its mercury content. Substitutes, e.g. ceramic, are very expensive and require complex processing.

Arenga

Usage
Industry brooms, garage brooms, dairy brushes and sweep brushes

Origin
From a sugar palm in south-east-asia, mostly Indonesia. The fibers come from black-brown leaf stalks, that a lot of them grow on the trunk of the sugar palm. The fibers are getting washed and combed for the further processing.

Characteristics
It's a brushlike, elastic fiber. The rough and hard plant fibers are oil repellent and have got a long lifespan.

Application area
Rough or moist garage floors, ware- and fabric houses, floors with oil-remainder in repair shops as well as stone floors.

B

Bad breath

Very unpleasant smells can be produced in the oral cavity from inadequate oral hygiene, bad teeth or inflammations. Bad breath also often originates in the gastro-intestinal tract, or as a result of bronchitis or bladder trouble.

 

Bleeding gums

In most cases, bleeding gums are caused by inflammation, itself brought on by plaque. By means of targeted mechanical brushing of the teeth, including the spaces between them (interdental spaces), and the use of high-quality oral hygiene products (toothpaste, mouthwash, chewing gum), the build-up of plaque can be prevented or rendered less aggressive.

Bristles

Toothbrushes today are, of course, made almost exclusively using artificial bristles. They use very high-quality materials, which absorb very little water. In order not to damage the gums, the ends of the bristles are rounded off using very complex technical processes.

 

 

 

Beech

Usage
It's practically suitable for all bristle bodies (for example floor wiper, sweeping set) and dental sticks.

Characteristics
Beech wood is a hard and high quality wood. It's fine pored and stands out because of its smooth surface. Because of this characteristic and thanks to its unobtrusively texture, the wood is perfect for a colored varnish.

Application area
Brooms for the in- and outdoor area as well as in the dental section. Bristle body with a colored varnish.

Birch

Usage
Dentalsticks

Origin
Nordic- and baltic states

Characteristics
Because the nordic birch is slow and in a result of that with small annual rings grows, is the wood tough and elastic. It's a lightweight wood, wich holds a high resistance against dryness and moisture.

Application area
Dentalsection

Bronze wire

Usage
Weapon brushes, grill brushes, hotplate wiper, technical brushes

Origin
Bronze is an copper-tin-based alloy. In addition you can add elements like zinc, nickel and phosphorus. This way the characteristics of bronze will specific spread.

Characteristics
Through the alloy-component tin features bronze, compared to the pure, relatively soft copper, a high stability and hardness. Furthermore bronze is corrosion resistant.

Application area
Weapon cleaning and householdsection.

Brass wire

Usage
Grill brushes, wire brushes, brushes for ceramic glass hot plate

Origin
Brass is an alloy made out of copper and zinc.

Characteristics
Brass is much harder and more solid than pure copper, but not so hard as bronze. It has a nice golden color and is comperatively expensive. It is more brittle than steel, so it has to process more careful.

Application area
On persistend dirt and scratchproof surfaces.

C

Caries

Micro-organisms live in the oral cavity. They feed on substances that are easily broken down – above all sugar. In doing so, they excrete metabolic products (acids), which attack and decalcify the enamel. As a result, there first appears, under the still intact enamel surface, a decalcified area (chalky spots/initial lesion). If the decalcification continues, the enamel surface is breached and a cavity, ‘caries’, appears.

Chewing gum

Sugar-free chewing gums can delay the formation of caries. They cause saliva to be produced, which favours the breakdown of acid-forming bacteria. However, chewing gum in no way replaces tooth brushing, as it does nothing to remove the plaque.

Children’s teeth

Regular dental care is important from the moment the first tooth appears.  To protect the milk teeth, it is important to use a suitable toothbrush and a low-fluoride toothpaste. Correct tooth brushing requires practice and patience. First, the chewing surfaces should be cleaned, then all outer surfaces and finally the inner surfaces of the teeth. Children fairly quickly learn how to handle a toothbrush by following their parents’ example. Nonetheless, it is advisable for Mummy or Daddy to finish off for small children. For thorough dental care, attention also needs to be paid to a healthy diet. Too many sweeties or a constant supply of sweet drinks lay teeth open to attack.Sugar consumption should be restricted as much as possible and be followed by tooth brushing.

Cocos

Usage
Industry brushes, sweeping set

Origin
The fruit fibers from the coconut shell are mainly from the countries Sri Lanka and India. The Shell is getting roasted and after chipping and washing the fibers will be peeled of and comed through.

Characteristics
Cocosfibers are weather- and rot-resistant, elastic and the've got a high abrasive strength.

Application area
It's suitable for the cleaning of rough floors like basement- and loft floors. Dry and rough floors in store- and fabric halls, garages, garden paths and stone plates outside houses. The Fibers can also be used wet areas or oiled floors.

D

Dental fluorosis

Disease occurring as a result of long-term overuse of fluoride. Its mildest symptoms are white to brownish spots on the enamel. These appear if between the ages of six and eight excessive quantities of fluoride are regularly ingested. As small children usually swallow some of the toothpaste they are using, up to this age children’s toothpaste with a reduced fluoride content should be used.

Dentine

The dental pulp is surrounded by the dentine, which forms the main bulk of the tooth. The enamel protects the dentine in the visible part of the tooth. It is softer than the enamel and contains fine tubules. These convey stimuli to the dental nerve. Where tooth necks are exposed (periodontosis), the dentine is laid bare and so is not protected. Hot and cold, sweet and sour, are perceived as pain signals. Special toothpaste, suitable mouthwash and above all an efficient toothbrush, all have a decisive effect in strengthening the gums.

Dentine caries

 

If caries has eaten through the enamel, the disturbance will progress more rapidly through the dentine, aided by the tubules that go through it. Where the teeth have exposed necks, the dentine has no protective enamel layer and is therefore very prone to caries.

Dental floss

Thread made of artificial fibre for cleaning interdental spaces. Approximately 50 cm of dental floss is removed from the dispenser, the ends wound round the middle finger of each hand and held against the thumbs. The taut floss is inserted carefully into each interdental space in the upper jaw and pulled up and down. To clean the lower jaw interdental spaces, take the floss round the tips of the forefingers. It is important always to clean both tooth surfaces of each interdental space.

Discoloured teeth

Unsightly food pigments can be deposited in the uppermost enamel layer, (e.g. from fruit, added food colourings, tea, coffee, red wine, etc.) and from tobacco products (tar).

E

F

Fluid (mouthwash)

 An effective ally of toothpaste, but its use cannot replace tooth brushing.

Fiber

Usage
Scrubbing brush, tar scrubbing brush, bathtub brushes, sweep brushes, chimney brushes, shoe brushes, hand-wash brushes eco brushes, massage brush

Origin
Fiber is one of the most important brush trimming material. They come from plant fibers in Central America wich are extracted from agave- and bromeliad-leaves. The leaves getting knocked until tough to fiberlike leafnerves remain. They will get combed and so is the fiber finished processing.

Characteristics
The yellow-white middlefine fibers are heat-resistant and acid-resistant. Also it's tough, elastic and water-resistant. They are suitable for a gentle cleaning and also for the production of houshold brushes.

Application area
For kitchenware, floors in household, office and tar. Moisture- or wetsection

G

Gingivitis

Gingivitis is an inflammation of the gums that is caused by the metabolic by-products of plaque bacteria. Visible signs of gingivitis are swelling and bleeding of the gums. Treatment or prevention requires that the bacteria-containing layer be removed as gently as possible, but nonetheless completely.

goat hair

Usage
Artist's painter, test glass cleaner, turned in brushes

Origin
Fine natural hair of the goat.

Characteristics
Very fine and robust hair. Dustbinding

Application area
For dusty and sensitively surfaces as well as for art.

H

horsehair (pure)

Usage
Floor wipers, sweeping set, fabric hand-wipers, shoe brushes, radiator brushes, bottle brushes

Origin
The hairs come from Horsebreedings primarly from South- and North America as well as China. 

Characteristics
The Horsehair is fine and soft. The stiff hairs from the horse tail are more valuable and have got a higher quality than the soft hairs from the mane. Horsehair is practical for mixing with Bristles.

Application area
Plain surfaces and areas out of wood or Plastic as well as for fine dry floors at home, at the office or at the storage hall. It's good for wiping dry woodchips and metal shaving from machines. It's only usable in dry condition.

Horsehair Mix

Usage
Floor wiper, sweeping set, shiny brushes oeco, painter oeco

Origin
Mixture between horsehair and nylon bristles from Europe. The Horsehair is getting mixed with fine synthetic fibers.

Characteristics
Fine and low-cost alternative compared to pure horsehair

Application area
Smooth floors (parquet). Only applicable when dry.

I

Interdental

It is possible to clean the narrow spaces between the teeth individually, using dental floss, toothpicks or special interdental toothbrushes.

Interdental caries

 

Because it is difficult to clean between the teeth, the bacterial coating (plaque) often remains there. Consequently, the enamel is attacked and the tooth often suffers unnoticed for a long time.

Initial caries

In this first stage of caries, in which there is only damage beneath the enamel surface, the condition can often be halted or cured by better oral hygiene and regular use of fluoride.

Incisors

Scoop- or chisel-shaped front teeth that are used for biting. The eight milk incisors are replaced by eight permanent incisors around the age of six.

J

K

L

M

Milk teeth

These are the first teeth, which appear at six or seven months. They are replaced between the ages of six and twelve years by the permanent teeth. Up to that point, the milk teeth serve to keep the places that the permanent teeth are going to take. They should remain intact as long as possible. 

Molars

These are the permanent, big, knobbly back teeth. The first molars come through into the oral cavity behind the milk molars at about the age of six. Together with both of the incisors, they are the first permanent teeth in the oral cavity. At about the age of twelve, the second molars come through and the wisdom teeth possibly only in adulthood.

N

O

P

Polypropylene (PP)

Usage
Sweeping set, floor wipers, sweeper, washing-up brushes, square wipers, scrubbing brushes, toilet brushes, bottle brushes and various household brushes

Origin
Polypropylene is a synthetic plastic, wich is based on petroleum.

Characteristics
PP is lightweight, doesn't even collect water and is resistent against a lot of acids, bases and solvents. You can use it up to max. 90°C

Application area
Mostly used at Moisturesections for groceries and rough brushes.

Polyester (PCTA)

Usage
Toothbrushes, toilet-rim cleaner, bottle brushes and various houshold brushes

Origin
Polyester is from fully synthetic fibers.

Characteristics
100% wetproof, base and acid resistence and very elastic

Application area
Teeth cleaning and household section

Polymex

Usage
Sweeping set, floor wiper, painter plastic, polish brushes plastic, outdoor broom

Origin
Polymex is a synthetic plastic wich is based on petroleum.

Characteristics
Qualified for special requirements Polymex is elastic and has got an outstanding ........ also in the wet

Application area
It is used for wood- and stone floors in place of horsehair.

Polyamide - Nylon 6.6

Usage
Washing-up brushes, dairy brushes, massage brush plastic, Hairbrushes, household brushes, industry broom

Origin
Tar products are the base product of this synthetic fiber.

Characteristics
The Fiber is in general like the natural fiber but it has its own special features. They are very elastic, buckling resisten, do not swell up in the water, do not get soft and have got an abrasive strength.

Application area
Wet- and drysection

Polyamide - Nylon 6.12

Usage
Toothbrushes, interdental-brushes, denture brushes

Origin
Tar products are the base product of this synthetic fiber.

Characteristics
It is resistent against chemicals, especially stiff and has got the best abraison resistance. Shows a low wateradmission, good elasticity and features an excellent ........ 

Application area
Teeth- and interdentalcleaning

Polypropylene (PP)

Usage
Base body by tooth brushes, sweeping set, scrubbing brushes, floor wiper, washing-up brushes, toilet brushes, toilet set, shoe brushes, sweeper, various brush handles.

Origin
Polypropylene is a synthetic plastic, wich is based on petroleum.

Characteristics
PP is lightweight, doesn't even collect water and is resistent against a lot of acids, bases and solvents. You can use it up to max. 90°C

Application area
Houshold- and dentalsection

 

 

Periodontosis

Inflammation of the gums (gingivitis) leads in the long run to receding gums and to loosening of the teeth. This can lead to loss of the teeth. Unlike gingivitis, periodontal damage can only be treated with great difficulty. Careful dental care and professional removal of plaque (or tartar) can prevent periodontosis or slow down any existing deterioration. 

Plaque

Plaque is a tough coating which settles on tooth surfaces and on the gum edges; it consists mainly of bacteria. In 1 mg of wet plaque, there are approximately 250 million bacteria. Most of these bacteria are responsible for producing tooth-damaging acids. Some bacteria excrete substances that make the plaque sticky and tough. Plaque can only be removed mechanically. Great care should be taken in choosing a toothbrush. The cleaning effect, in terms of the bristle area, and an ergonomically shaped handle are the most important selection criteria.

Q

R

Recycling-Material (out of PP)

Usage
Changing-heads for the washing-up brush, floor wiper, outdoor broom, sweeping set (black)

Origin
Recycling-material is a mixture from plastic waste. Polyolefine plastic.

Characteristics
PP is lightweight, doesn't even collect water and is resistent against a lot of acids, bases and solvents. You can use it up to max. 90°C

Application area
Household section for dim bodies, wich mostly getting colored in black.

 

 

 

Root caries

The dentine around exposed tooth necks or roots has no protective enamel layer and so is more prone to caries. The targeted application of toothbrushes, dental floss and interdental brushes combined with an effective toothpaste can provide protection.

Receding gums

Gums recede following inflammation (periodontitis) or damage to the gums around individual teeth. Most often this occurs as a result of incorrect brushing technique, e.g. horizontal or over-vigorous scrubbing.

RDA value (abrasiveness)

 

The abrasiveness of a toothpaste tells you the extent to which it will rub away surfaces. It is measured on the RDA scale. The higher the RDA value of a toothpaste, the greater its rubbing effect. It is this action that removes the plaque in tooth-brushing, without the enamel being attacked. However, where tooth necks are exposed, toothpastes that are too abrasive may remove dentine, which is softer than enamel; in this case they should not be used.

S

Saliva

Saliva prevents the mucous membranes from drying out, rinses the oral cavity, neutralises acids and provides minerals to strengthen the enamel.

Secondary caries

This occurs mostly at the edge of a filling. Cracks between the filling and the tooth are the cause of this form of caries.

Sensitive gums

Plaque that has not been sufficiently removed by tooth-brushing can make gums slightly inflamed, and gentle rubbing, say by a toothbrush or toothpick, can make them bleed. If this occurs, it is important to continue brushing the teeth thoroughly, but gently.

Sensitive teeth

Where teeth have exposed necks, the dentine has no protective enamel layer and is therefore very prone to caries. The entrances to the dentine tubules are open and transmit the sensation of pain when stimulated, e.g. by food or drink that is hot, cold, sweet or sour.

Sensitive tooth necks

Teeth react sensitively when tooth necks are exposed. This occurs when an incorrect brushing technique, with too much pressure, is used, or when there is inflammation.  Toothbrushes with special, soft bristles that are kind on the gums should be used for cleaning. 

swine bristles

Usage
paintbrush, shaving brushes, hairbrushes, massage brushes, clothing brushes

Origin
The swine bristle are from China. 
The more natural the swines held, the colder the climate they live in and the older they become, the longer and more stiff the bristles get. The bristles will be cut to the right length. The first cut at the roots of the bristles is the best, the second on the end of the bristles is the baddest. Through mixtures of the two, the hardness, the quality and the price for the trimming can be regulated.

Characteristics
To turn in and for stamping practical.
Special features are the high elasticity, the scrubblike surface, the conical setup and the roots. The bristles are perfect for hairbrushes because they can collect greasy and dusty hair. Because on the ends the bristles split they can soak up any kind of liquid. So shaving foam or paint for example can be better liable on the paintbrush/shaving brush.

Application area
For personal hygiene and painter

steel wire

Usage
Steel brushes, industry brushes, weapon brushes

Origin
All metallic alloys, where iron is the main component, will be marked as steal.

Characteristics
It is not moldable. According to the alloy there can be hard or soft steel. Soft steel is perfect for molding and hard steel is therefor brittle. 

Application area
For industry, weapon- and paintbrush cleaning as well as for special applications

T

Tartar

This calcified, hard coating of the teeth forms wherever the bacterial coating (plaque) remains long enough to absorb minerals. This is especially true at the points where the salivary glands open into the oral cavity, namely on the inside of the lower incisors (opening of the sublingual glands) and the outside of the upper front molars (opening of the parotid gland). Tartar can build up not only above the gum edge, but also below it; this is known as concretion. Concretion occurs when minerals and blood components are absorbed in plaque. Tartar cannot be removed by tooth brushing; it has to be done at the dentist’s.

 

Tooth

Each tooth comprises a root and a crown. Where they meet is called the tooth neck. The root ends are open. Blood and nerve tracts enter the pulp cavity through the root canals and form the pulp that is surrounded by dentine. In the crown, the dentine is covered by enamel. The tooth does not grow directly from the bone, but is flexibly anchored in the gums (gingiva) and the jawbone by means of the periodontal ligament (periodontium).

Toothbrush

Together with toothpaste, the most important tool in dental care. The key criteria for choosing a suitable toothbrush are an ergonomic, optimally formed handle, a brush head that is not too large and the setting of the bristles. Patients with exposed tooth necks should use a toothbrush with particularly soft bristles.

Tooth-brushing technique

Tooth brushing should be systematic. Children start by cleaning the chewing surfaces, then the outer surfaces and finally the inner surfaces. Adults should hold the brush diagonally at 45° against the gum edge and move it over the teeth with small, approximately circular movements. In this way, teeth and gums will be cleaned properly.

Tooth discolouration

All teeth are covered by a thin coating known as enamel cuticle (dental pellicle). It can absorb colours from outside the body, leading to discolouration. These colours mainly come from food sources, such as fruit, artificial colourings, tea, coffee, red wine and the tar in tobacco. Discolouration can be reduced or removed by using Candida White toothpaste and a White toothbrush.

Tooth neck caries

The dentine found at exposed tooth necks/roots has no protective enamel covering and so is more prone to caries. Careful cleaning with toothbrush, dental floss and interdental brushes, together with the use of a special toothpaste, are therefore very important.

Toothpaste

Aromatic, pleasant-tasting cream-like preparation that assists the cleaning function of the toothbrush. The toothpaste should contain fluoride to act against caries. Additional active ingredients enhance its disease-fighting (prophylactic) effect. Toothpaste should be chosen according to the outcome sought or the issue at hand and the RDA value should also correspond to the particular situation.

Toothpicks

Toothpicks, made of soft wood and usually three sided, can be used to clean interdental spaces. They should be inserted in the spaces with the flat side against the gum, in order not to damage it.

Thermoplastic Elastomer (TPE)

Usage
Rubberparts in toothbrushes, sweeping sets, scrubber, floor wiper, washing-up brushes

Origin
Synthetic produced caoutchouc.

Characteristics
It is thermoplastic workable, recyclable and is rubberlike. Through the addition of heat the TPE gets liquid and is easy moldable. When it's cooled down it keeps its shape. Also TPE can stick to other plastics (ABS, PP).

Application are
Household section and dental section.

U

Union

Usage
Sweep brushes, wash brushes, scrubber, carpet brushes

Origin
Union is a mixture between bassine and fiber. Bassine is like fiber a herbal material and grows in India from the leaves of the true sago palm.

Characteristics
Since union is a rough an hard material, it has an ideal abrasive effect.

Application area
For Industry, basement- and outdoor section, rough surfaces and devices, moisture- or wet section

V

W

White teeth

Natural teeth are never completely white, but have a specific individual colour of their own. The Candida toothpaste White can be used daily.

X

Y

Z

Platinum sponsors

Gold sponsors

Silver sponsors

P.O. Box 4076
5004 JB Tilburg
The Netherlands

tel: 00 31 135944 678
fax: 00 31 13 5944 740
e-mail: feibp@wispa.nl

P.O. Box 4076
5004 JB Tilburg
The Netherlands

tel: 00 31 135944 678
fax: 00 31 13 5944 740
e-mail: feibp@wispa.nl